Debian Live Manual

About

1. Despre acest manual

1.1 For the impatient
1.2 Termeni
1.3 Autori
1.4 Cum se poate contribui la acest document
1.4.1 Aplicarea de patch-uri
1.4.2 Translation

2. Despre Proiectul Debian Live

2.1 Motivatie
2.1.1 Ce nu e bine cu sistemele live actuale
2.1.2 De ce e nevoie de propriul nostru sistem live ?
2.2 Filozofia
2.2.1 Doar programe oficiale, fara schimbari.
2.2.2 Nu vor fi programe de configurare pentru sistemul live.
2.3 Contact

User

3. Installation

3.1 Requirements
3.2 Installing live-build
3.2.1 From the Debian repository
3.2.2 From source
3.2.3 From 'snapshots'
3.3 live-boot and live-config
3.3.1 From the Debian repository
3.3.2 From source
3.3.3 From 'snapshots'

4. The basics

4.1 What is a live system?
4.2 First steps: building an ISO image
4.2.1 Testing an ISO image with Qemu
4.2.2 Testing an ISO image with virtualbox-ose
4.2.3 Burning an ISO image to a physical medium
4.3 Building a USB/HDD image
4.3.1 Copying USB/HDD image to a USB stick
4.3.2 Testing a USB/HDD image with Qemu
4.3.3 Using the space left on a USB stick
4.4 Building a netboot image
4.4.1 DHCP server
4.4.2 TFTP server
4.4.3 NFS server
4.4.4 Netboot testing HowTo
4.4.5 Qemu
4.4.6 VMWare Player

5. Overview of tools

5.1 live-build
5.1.1 The lb config command
5.1.2 The lb build command
5.1.3 The lb clean command
5.2 The live-boot package
5.3 The live-config package

6. Managing a configuration

6.1 Use auto to manage configuration changes
6.2 Example auto scripts

7. Customization overview

7.1 Build time vs. boot time configuration
7.2 Stages of the build
7.3 Supplement lb config with files
7.4 Customization tasks

8. Customizing package installation

8.1 Package sources
8.1.1 Distribution, archive areas and mode
8.1.2 Distribution mirrors
8.1.3 Distribution mirrors used at build time
8.1.4 Distribution mirrors used at run time
8.1.5 Additional repositories
8.2 Choosing packages to install
8.2.1 Choosing a few packages
8.2.2 Package lists
8.2.3 Predefined package lists
8.2.4 Local package lists
8.2.5 Local binary package lists
8.2.6 Extending a provided package list using includes
8.2.7 Using conditionals inside package lists
8.2.8 Tasks
8.2.9 Desktop and language tasks
8.3 Installing modified or third-party packages
8.3.1 Using chroot_local-packages to install custom packages
8.3.2 Using an APT repository to install custom packages
8.3.3 Custom packages and APT
8.4 Configuring APT at build time
8.4.1 Choosing apt or aptitude
8.4.2 Using a proxy with APT
8.4.3 Tweaking APT to save space
8.4.4 Passing options to apt or aptitude
8.4.5 APT pinning

9. Customizing contents

9.1 Includes
9.1.1 Live/chroot local includes
9.1.2 Binary local includes
9.1.3 Binary includes
9.2 Hooks
9.2.1 Live/chroot local hooks
9.2.2 Boot-time hooks
9.2.3 Binary local hooks
9.3 Preseeding Debconf questions

10. Customizing run time behaviours

10.1 Customizing the live user
10.2 Customizing locale and language
10.3 Persistence
10.3.1 Full persistence
10.3.2 Home automounting
10.3.3 Snapshots
10.3.4 Persistent SubText
10.3.5 Partial remastering

11. Customizing the binary image

11.1 Bootloader
11.2 ISO metadata

12. Customizing Debian Installer

12.1 Types of Debian Installer
12.2 Customizing Debian Installer by preseeding
12.3 Customizing Debian Installer content

Project

13. Reporting bugs

13.1 Known issues
13.2 Rebuild from scratch
13.3 Use up-to-date packages
13.4 Collect information
13.5 Isolate the failing case if possible
13.6 Use the correct package to report the bug against
13.6.1 At build time whilst bootstrapping
13.6.2 At build time whilst installing packages
13.6.3 At boot time
13.6.4 At run time
13.7 Do the research
13.8 Where to report bugs

14. Coding Style

14.1 Compatibility
14.2 Indenting
14.3 Wrapping
14.4 Variables
14.5 Miscellaneous

15. Procedures

15.1 Udeb Uploads
15.2 Major Releases
15.3 Point Releases
15.3.1 Point release announcement template

Examples

16. Examples

16.1 Using the examples
16.2 Tutorial 1: A standard image
16.3 Tutorial 2: A web browser utility
16.4 Tutorial 3: A personalized image
16.4.1 First revision
16.4.2 Second revision
16.5 A VNC Kiosk Client
16.6 A base image for a 128M USB key
16.7 A localized KDE desktop and installer

Debian Live Manual

About

1. Despre acest manual

Scopul principal al acestui manual este de a accesa intreaga documentatie a proiectului Debian Live intr-un singur loc. Dar aici nu vor fii gasite documantatii pentru utilizatorul final cu exceptia celor legate de sistemul live.

Anumite comenzi din text trebuie sa fie executate ca 'super_utilizator', privilegiu care poate fi obtinut fie prin comanda su}, sau #{sudo}. Pentru a distinge intre acesti utilizatori se vor folosi #{$ respectiv # . Aceste simboluri nu fac parte din comenzi.

1.1 For the impatient

While we believe that everything in this manual is important to at least some of our users, we realize it is a lot of material to cover and that you may wish to experience early success using the software before delving into the details. Therefore, we have provided three tutorials in the Examples section designed to teach you image building and customization basics. Read Using the examples first, followed by Tutorial 1: A standard image, Tutorial 2: A web browser utility and finally Tutorial 3: A personalized image. By the end of these tutorials, you will have a taste of what can be done with Debian Live. We encourage you to return to more in-depth study of the manual, perhaps next reading The basics, skimming or skipping Building a netboot image, and finishing by reading the Customization overview and the chapters that follow it. By this point, we hope you are thoroughly excited by what can be done with Debian Live and motivated to read the rest of the manual, cover-to-cover.

1.2 Termeni

  • Live system: Un sistem de operare care porneste fara a instala pe discul dur. Un sistem live nu altereaza un sistem de operare local sau fisiere deja instalate pe discul dur ci doar dace se mentioneaza expres acest lucru. Sistemele livefolosesc spre pornire medii ca CDs, DVDs sau chei USB. Unele chiar pot porni prin retaua de net.
  • Debian Live: Sub-proiectul Debian care gereaza pachetele live-boot, live-build, live-config, si live-manual.
  • Debian Live system: Un sistem live care foloseste programe din sitemul de operare Debian, si care poate fi pornit folosind CDs, DVDs, chei USB, sau reteaua net (via netboot images), sau prin nternet (via boot parameter fetch=URL).
  • Host system: Mediul folosit pentru crearea sistemului live pe un sistem dat.
  • Target system: Mediul folosit pentru rularea sistemului live.
  • live-boot: O coloctie se scripte folosite la pornirea sistemului live. live-boot a facul parte formal din live-initramfs.
  • live-build: O colectie de scripte folosite la particularizatrea sistemelor Debian Live. live-build a fost cunoscut ca live-helper, iar mai inainte ca live-package.
  • live-config: O colectie de scripte folosite la configurarea sitemului live in timpul procesului de pornire. live-config a fost cunoscut ca parte din live-initramfs.
  • live-manual: Acest document face parte din pachetul numit live-manual.
  • Debian Installer (d-i): Sistemul de instalare oficial pentru distributia Debian.
  • Boot parameters: Parameti care pot fi adaugati la promptul bootloader-ului care sa infuenteze kernelul sau live-config.
  • chroot: Programul chroot, chroot(8), permite rularea a diferite instante din mediul GNU/Linux pe un singur sistem si in simultan fara a necesita o repornire a sistemului.
  • Binary image: Un fisier ce contine sistemul live, ca de exemplu binary.iso sau binary.img.
  • Target distribution: Dea pe care se bazeaza sistemul live. Aceasta distributie poate fi diferita de cea a sistemului gazda.
  • Squeeze/Wheezy/Sid (stable/testing/unstable): Debian codenames for releases. At the time of writing, Squeeze is the current stable release and Wheezy is the current testing release. Sid will always be a synonym for the unstable release. Throughout the manual, we tend to use codenames for the releases, as that is what is supported by the tools themselves.
  • stable contine ultima versiune oficiala a distributiei Debian. testing este sursa pentru urmatoarea versiune stable. Pricipalul avantaj la folosirea distibutiei testing este folosirea programelor mai noi decat cele din stable. Distributia unstable este locul unde au loc activ dezvoltarile din Debian. In general ea este folosita de dezvoltatori sau de cei ce le place riscul ... .

    1.3 Autori

    Lista autorilor (in ordine alfabetica):

  • Ben Armstrong
  • Brendan Sleight
  • Chris Lamb
  • Daniel Baumann
  • Franklin Piat
  • Jonas Stein
  • Kai Hendry
  • Marco Amadori
  • Mathieu Geli
  • Matthias Kirschner
  • Richard Nelson
  • Trent W. Buck
  • 1.4 Cum se poate contribui la acest document

    Acest manual este conceput ca un proiect comunitar si astfel orice propozitie sau inbunatatire sunt bune venite. Principala cale de a face o contributie este trimeterea unui mail la mailing list. Vedeti Contact pentru mai multe informatii.

    In orice contributie trimisa va rog sa precizati in clar cine detine copyright-ul si sub ce licenta este publicata. A se nota ca o contrinutie este acceptata daca este licentiata in acceeasi termeni ca si restul documentului , adica GPL version 3 or later.

    Sursele acestui manual sunt gerate folosind Git version control system. Pute-ti checkout ultima copie prin executarea :

      $ git clone git://live.debian.net/git/live-manual.git

    Inainte de a trimite contibutia dvs, este de dorit sa efectuati o previzualizare a lucrarii. Pentru aceasta verifica-ti ca pachetele necesare pentru 'building' sunt instalate, prin executatea comenzii:

       # apt-get install make po4a sisu-complete libnokogiri-ruby

    Pute-ti crea live-manual de la nivelul de sus al directorului Git checkout al dvs, prin executatea:

       $ make build

    Since it takes a while to build the manual in all supported languages, you may find it convenient when proofing to build for only one language, e.g. by executing:

       $ make build LANGUAGES=en

    1.4.1 Aplicarea de patch-uri

    Commiterea in direct este la indemana oricui. Totusi, va rugam sa trimeteti schimbarile mai mari , spre discutie , la mailing list. Pentru a fi trimise contibutiile la repository, pasii urmatori sunt necesari:

  • Fetch the public commit key:
  •    $ mkdir -p ~/.ssh/identity.d
       $ wget http://live.debian.net/other/keys/gitosis@live.debian.net \
           -O ~/.ssh/identity.d/gitosis@live.debian.net
       $ wget http://live.debian.net/other/keys/gitosis@live.debian.net.pub \
           -O ~/.ssh/identity.d/gitosis@live.debian.net.pub
       $ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/identity.d/gitosis@live.debian.net*

  • Adaugati urmatoarea sectiuna la openssh-client config:
  •    $ cat >> ~/.ssh/config << EOF
       Host live.debian.net
           Hostname live.debian.net
           User gitosis
           IdentityFile ~/.ssh/identity.d/gitosis@live.debian.net
       EOF

  • Checkout un clon al manualului prin ssh:
  •    $ git clone gitosis@live.debian.net:/live-manual.git

  • After editing the files in manual/en/, please call the 'commit' target in the top level directory to sanitize the files and update the translation files:
  •    $ make commit

  • Dupa 'sanitizare' 'commit' schimbarile. Scrieti mesajele de commit, care constau in propozitii clare, care incep cu litere Mari, si se incheie cu punct si sens. Inceputul poate fii de forma 'Fixing/Adding/Removing/Correcting/Translating':
  •    $ git commit -a -m "Adding a section on applying patches."

  • Primite commit-ul la server:
  •    $ git push

    1.4.2 Translation

    To submit a translation for a new language, follow these three steps:

  • Translate the about_manual.ssi.pot, about_project.ssi.pot and index.html.in.pot files to your language with your favourite editor (such as poedit). Send translated files to the mailing list. Once we have reviewed your submission, we will add the new language to the manual (providing the po files) and will enable it in the autobuild.
  • Once the new language is added, you can randomly start translating all po files in manual/po/.
  • Don't forget you need make commit to ensure the translated manuals are updated from the po files, before git commit -a and git push.