Manual Live Systems

Sobre

1. Sobre esse manual

1.1 Para os impacientes
1.2 Terminologia
1.3 Autores
1.4 Contribuindo com esse documento
1.4.1 Applying changes
1.4.2 Tradução

2. About the Live Systems Project

2.1 Motivação
2.1.1 O que está errado com os atuais sistemas live
2.1.2 Por que criar seu proprio sistema live?
2.2 Filosofia
2.2.1 Apenas pacotes inalterados do Debian "main"
2.2.2 Nenhum pacote de configuração do sistema live
2.3 Contato

Usuario

3. Instalação

3.1 Requisitos
3.2 Instalando live-build
3.2.1 Do repositório Debian
3.2.2 Da fonte
3.2.3 Dos 'instantaneos'
3.3 Instalando live-boot e live-config
3.3.1 Do repositório Debian
3.3.2 Da fonte
3.3.3 Dos 'instantaneos'

4. O básico

4.1 O que é um sistema live?
4.2 Downloading prebuilt images
4.3 Using the web live image builder
4.3.1 Web builder usage and caveats
4.4 Primeiros passos: construindo uma imagem ISO híbrida
4.5 Usando uma imagem live ISO hibrida
4.5.1 Queimar uma imagem ISO em um meio físico
4.5.2 Copiar uma imagem ISO híbrida para um dispositivo USB
4.5.3 Using the space left on a USB stick
4.5.4 Booting the live medium
4.6 Usando uma máquina virtual para testar
4.6.1 Testing an ISO image with QEMU
4.6.2 Testing an ISO image with VirtualBox
4.7 Building and using an HDD image
4.8 Building a netboot image
4.8.1 Servidor DHCP
4.8.2 Servidor TFTP
4.8.3 Servidor NFS
4.8.4 Netboot testing HowTo
4.8.5 Qemu
4.9 Webbooting
4.9.1 Getting the webboot files
4.9.2 Booting webboot images

5. Overview of tools

5.1 The live-build package
5.1.1 The lb init command
5.1.2 The lb config command
5.1.3 The lb build command
5.1.4 The lb clean command
5.2 The live-boot package
5.3 The live-config package

6. Managing a configuration

6.1 Dealing with configuration changes
6.1.1 Why use auto scripts? What do they do?
6.1.2 Use example auto scripts
6.2 Clone a configuration published via Git

7. Visão geral sobre personalização

7.1 Configuração de tempo de construção X tempo de inicialização
7.2 Etapas da construção
7.3 Complementar lb config com arquivos
7.4 Tarefas de personalização

8. Customizing package installation

8.1 Package sources
8.1.1 Distribution, archive areas and mode
8.1.2 Distribution mirrors
8.1.3 Distribution mirrors used at build time
8.1.4 Distribution mirrors used at run time
8.1.5 Additional repositories
8.2 Choosing packages to install
8.2.1 Package lists
8.2.2 Using metapackages
8.2.3 Local package lists
8.2.4 Local binary package lists
8.2.5 Generated package lists
8.2.6 Using conditionals inside package lists
8.2.7 Removing packages at install time
8.2.8 Desktop and language tasks
8.2.9 Kernel flavour and version
8.2.10 Custom kernels
8.3 Installing modified or third-party packages
8.3.1 Using packages.chroot to install custom packages
8.3.2 Using an APT repository to install custom packages
8.3.3 Custom packages and APT
8.4 Configuring APT at build time
8.4.1 Choosing apt or aptitude
8.4.2 Using a proxy with APT
8.4.3 Tweaking APT to save space
8.4.4 Passing options to apt or aptitude
8.4.5 APT pinning

9. Customizing contents

9.1 Includes
9.1.1 Live/chroot local includes
9.1.2 Binary local includes
9.2 Hooks
9.2.1 Live/chroot local hooks
9.2.2 Boot-time hooks
9.2.3 Binary local hooks
9.3 Preseeding Debconf questions

10. Customizing run time behaviours

10.1 Customizing the live user
10.2 Customizing locale and language
10.3 Persistence
10.3.1 The persistence.conf file
10.3.2 Using more than one persistence store
10.4 Using persistence with encryption

11. Customizing the binary image

11.1 Bootloaders
11.2 ISO metadata

12. Customizing Debian Installer

12.1 Types of Debian Installer
12.2 Customizing Debian Installer by preseeding
12.3 Customizing Debian Installer content

Projeto

13. Contributing to the project

13.1 Aplicando Atualizações

14. Reporting bugs

14.1 Known issues
14.2 Rebuild from scratch
14.3 Use up-to-date packages
14.4 Collect information
14.5 Isolate the failing case if possible
14.6 Use the correct package to report the bug against
14.6.1 At build time while bootstrapping
14.6.2 At build time while installing packages
14.6.3 At boot time
14.6.4 At run time
14.7 Do the research
14.8 Where to report bugs

15. Coding Style

15.1 Compatibility
15.2 Indenting
15.3 Wrapping
15.4 Variables
15.5 Miscellaneous

16. Procedures

16.1 Major Releases
16.2 Point Releases
16.2.1 Last Point Release of a Debian Release
16.2.2 Point release announcement template

17. Git repositories

17.1 Handling multiple repositories

Exemplos

18. Examples

18.1 Using the examples
18.2 Tutorial 1: A default image
18.3 Tutorial 2: A web browser utility
18.4 Tutorial 3: A personalized image
18.4.1 First revision
18.4.2 Second revision
18.5 A VNC Kiosk Client
18.6 A base image for a 128MB USB key
18.7 A localized GNOME desktop and installer

Apendice

19. Style guide

19.1 Guidelines for authors
19.1.1 Linguistic features
19.1.2 Procedures
19.2 Guidelines for translators
19.2.1 Translation hints

Metadata

Manual Live Systems

Usuario

7. Visão geral sobre personalização

This chapter gives an overview of the various ways in which you may customize a live system.

7.1 Configuração de tempo de construção X tempo de inicialização

As opções de configuração do sistema Live são divididas em opções de tempo de compilação que são as opções aplicadas em tempo de compilação e opções de tempo de inicialização que são aplicadas em tempo de inicialização. Opções de inicialização são divididas naquelas que ocorrem em início do inicialização, aplicadas pelo pacote live-boot e aquelas que acontecem no final da inicialização, aplicadas pelo live-config. Qualquer opção de inicialização pode ser modificada pelo usuário, especificando a no prompt de inicialização. A imagem também pode ser construída com os parâmetros de inicialização padrão para que os usuários possam normalmente apenas inicializar diretamente pelo sistema live, sem especificar quaisquer opções quando todos os padrões são adequados. Em particular, o argumento para lb --bootappend-live consiste de quaisquer opções padrão de kernel de linha de comando para o sistema live, tais como persistência, layouts de teclado, ou fuso horário. Veja Personalizando local e linguagem, por exemplo.

Build-time configuration options are described in the lb init and the lb config man pages. Boot-time options are described in the man pages for live-boot and live-config. Although the live-boot and live-config packages are installed within the live system you are building, it is recommended that you also install them on your build system for easy reference when you are working on your configuration. It is safe to do so, as none of the scripts contained within them are executed unless the system is configured as a live system.

7.2 Etapas da construção

The build process is divided into stages, with various customizations applied in sequence in each. The first stage to run is the bootstrap stage. This is the initial phase of populating the chroot directory with packages to make a barebones Debian system. This is followed by the chroot stage, which completes the construction of chroot directory, populating it with all of the packages listed in the configuration, along with any other materials. Most customization of content occurs in this stage. The final stage of preparing the live image is the binary stage, which builds a bootable image, using the contents of the chroot directory to construct the root filesystem for the Live system, and including the installer and any other additional material on the target medium outside of the Live system's filesystem. After the live image is built, if enabled, the source tarball is built in the source stage.

Within each of these stages, there is a particular sequence in which commands are applied. These are arranged in such a way as to ensure customizations can be layered in a reasonable fashion. For example, within the chroot stage, preseeds are applied before any packages are installed, packages are installed before any locally included files are copied, and hooks are run later, after all of the materials are in place.

7.3 Complementar lb config com arquivos

Although lb config creates a skeletal configuration in the config/ directory, to accomplish your goals, you may need to provide additional files in subdirectories of config/. Depending on where the files are stored in the configuration, they may be copied into the live system's filesystem or into the binary image filesystem, or may provide build-time configurations of the system that would be cumbersome to pass as command-line options. You may include things such as custom lists of packages, custom artwork, or hook scripts to run either at build time or at boot time, boosting the already considerable flexibility of debian-live with code of your own.

7.4 Tarefas de personalização

Os capítulos seguintes são organizados pelos tipos de personalização de tarefas que os usuários normalmente executam: Personalizar a instalação de pacote, Personalizar conteúdos, e Personalizar localizade e linguagem cobrem apenas algumas das coisas que você pode querer fazer.