Manualul Live Systems


1. Despre acest manual

1.1 For the impatient
1.2 Termeni
1.3 Autori
1.4 Cum se poate contribui la acest document
1.4.1 Applying changes
1.4.2 Translation

2. About the Live Systems Project

2.1 Motivatie
2.1.1 Ce nu e bine cu sistemele live actuale
2.1.2 De ce e nevoie de propriul nostru sistem live ?
2.2 Filozofia
2.2.1 Numai pachete neschimbate din Debian "main"
2.2.2 Nu vor fi programe de configurare pentru sistemul live.
2.3 Contact


3. Installation

3.1 Requirements
3.2 Installing live-build
3.2.1 From the Debian repository
3.2.2 From source
3.2.3 From 'snapshots'
3.3 Installing live-boot and live-config
3.3.1 From the Debian repository
3.3.2 From source
3.3.3 From 'snapshots'

4. The basics

4.1 What is a live system?
4.2 Downloading prebuilt images
4.3 Using the web live image builder
4.3.1 Web builder usage and caveats
4.4 First steps: building an ISO hybrid image
4.5 Using an ISO hybrid live image
4.5.1 Burning an ISO image to a physical medium
4.5.2 Copying an ISO hybrid image to a USB stick
4.5.3 Using the space left on a USB stick
4.5.4 Booting the live medium
4.6 Using a virtual machine for testing
4.6.1 Testing an ISO image with QEMU
4.6.2 Testing an ISO image with VirtualBox
4.7 Building and using an HDD image
4.8 Building a netboot image
4.8.1 DHCP server
4.8.2 TFTP server
4.8.3 NFS server
4.8.4 Netboot testing HowTo
4.8.5 Qemu
4.9 Webbooting
4.9.1 Getting the webboot files
4.9.2 Booting webboot images

5. Overview of tools

5.1 The live-build package
5.1.1 The lb init command
5.1.2 The lb config command
5.1.3 The lb build command
5.1.4 The lb clean command
5.2 The live-boot package
5.3 The live-config package

6. Managing a configuration

6.1 Dealing with configuration changes
6.1.1 Why use auto scripts? What do they do?
6.1.2 Use example auto scripts
6.2 Clone a configuration published via Git

7. Customization overview

7.1 Build time vs. boot time configuration
7.2 Stages of the build
7.3 Supplement lb config with files
7.4 Customization tasks

8. Customizing package installation

8.1 Package sources
8.1.1 Distribution, archive areas and mode
8.1.2 Distribution mirrors
8.1.3 Distribution mirrors used at build time
8.1.4 Distribution mirrors used at run time
8.1.5 Additional repositories
8.2 Choosing packages to install
8.2.1 Package lists
8.2.2 Using metapackages
8.2.3 Local package lists
8.2.4 Local binary package lists
8.2.5 Generated package lists
8.2.6 Using conditionals inside package lists
8.2.7 Removing packages at install time
8.2.8 Desktop and language tasks
8.2.9 Kernel flavour and version
8.2.10 Custom kernels
8.3 Installing modified or third-party packages
8.3.1 Using packages.chroot to install custom packages
8.3.2 Using an APT repository to install custom packages
8.3.3 Custom packages and APT
8.4 Configuring APT at build time
8.4.1 Choosing apt or aptitude
8.4.2 Using a proxy with APT
8.4.3 Tweaking APT to save space
8.4.4 Passing options to apt or aptitude
8.4.5 APT pinning

9. Customizing contents

9.1 Includes
9.1.1 Live/chroot local includes
9.1.2 Binary local includes
9.2 Hooks
9.2.1 Live/chroot local hooks
9.2.2 Boot-time hooks
9.2.3 Binary local hooks
9.3 Preseeding Debconf questions

10. Customizing run time behaviours

10.1 Customizing the live user
10.2 Customizing locale and language
10.3 Persistence
10.3.1 The persistence.conf file
10.3.2 Using more than one persistence store
10.4 Using persistence with encryption

11. Customizing the binary image

11.1 Bootloaders
11.2 ISO metadata

12. Customizing Debian Installer

12.1 Types of Debian Installer
12.2 Customizing Debian Installer by preseeding
12.3 Customizing Debian Installer content


13. Contributing to the project

13.1 Making changes

14. Reporting bugs

14.1 Known issues
14.2 Rebuild from scratch
14.3 Use up-to-date packages
14.4 Collect information
14.5 Isolate the failing case if possible
14.6 Use the correct package to report the bug against
14.6.1 At build time while bootstrapping
14.6.2 At build time while installing packages
14.6.3 At boot time
14.6.4 At run time
14.7 Do the research
14.8 Where to report bugs

15. Coding Style

15.1 Compatibility
15.2 Indenting
15.3 Wrapping
15.4 Variables
15.5 Miscellaneous

16. Procedures

16.1 Major Releases
16.2 Point Releases
16.2.1 Last Point Release of a Debian Release
16.2.2 Point release announcement template

17. Git repositories

17.1 Handling multiple repositories


18. Examples

18.1 Using the examples
18.2 Tutorial 1: A default image
18.3 Tutorial 2: A web browser utility
18.4 Tutorial 3: A personalized image
18.4.1 First revision
18.4.2 Second revision
18.5 A VNC Kiosk Client
18.6 A base image for a 128MB USB key
18.7 A localized GNOME desktop and installer


19. Style guide

19.1 Guidelines for authors
19.1.1 Linguistic features
19.1.2 Procedures
19.2 Guidelines for translators
19.2.1 Translation hints


Manualul Live Systems


2. About the Live Systems Project

2.1 Motivatie

2.1.1 Ce nu e bine cu sistemele live actuale

When Live Systems Project was initiated, there were already several Debian based live systems available and they are doing a great job. From the Debian perspective most of them have one or more of the following disadvantages:

2.1.2 De ce e nevoie de propriul nostru sistem live ?

Debian se considera Sistemul de Operare Universal: Are un mecanism live pentru a se promova in jur si de a prezenta cu acuratete sistemul de operare ce are urmatoarele mari avantaje:

2.2 Filozofia

2.2.1 Numai pachete neschimbate din Debian "main"

Se vor folosi numai pachete din depozitul Debian sectiunea "main". Sectiunea non-free nu este parte a Debian drept urmare nu poate fi folosita nici un fel la construirea imaginilor live cu Debian.

Nu vor fi facute nici o schimbare in programe. Daca este nevoie de acest lucru, schimbarile vor fi facute in coordonare cu responsabilul de program din Debian.

Ca o exceptie, programele specifice ca live-boot, live-build sau live-config pot fi folosite temporar din depozitele proprii live, pentru nevoi de dezvoltare. (de exemplu pentru creerea de development snapshots). Acestea vor fi upload-ate in Debian la date cuvenite.

2.2.2 Nu vor fi programe de configurare pentru sistemul live.

In aceasta faza nu vor fi propuse sau instalate example sau configuratii alternative. Toate programele sunt folosite cu configuratia default 'de baza', la fel ca in instalatia normaladin Debian.

In caz de nevoie a unei configuratii diferite, aceasta schimbare va fii facuta in coordonare cu responsabilui de program din Debian.

A system for configuring packages is provided using debconf allowing custom configured packages to be installed in your custom produced live system images, but for the prebuilt live images we choose to leave packages in their default configuration, unless absolutely necessary in order to work in the live environment. Wherever possible, we prefer to adapt packages within the Debian archive to work better in a live system versus making changes to the live toolchain or prebuilt image configurations. For more information, please see Customization overview.

2.3 Contact