Live Systems Handbuch

Über Live Systeme

Über dieses Handbuch

1. Über dieses Handbuch

1.1 Für die Ungeduldigen
1.2 Begriffe
1.3 Autoren
1.4 Contributing to this document
1.4.1 Applying changes
1.4.2 Translation

About the Live Systems Project

2. About the Live Systems Project

2.1 Motivation
2.1.1 What is wrong with current live systems
2.1.2 Why create our own live system?
2.2 Philosophy
2.2.1 Only unchanged packages from Debian "main"
2.2.2 No package configuration of the live system
2.3 Contact

Benutzer

Installation

3. Installation

3.1 Requirements
3.2 Installing live-build
3.2.1 From the Debian repository
3.2.2 From source
3.2.3 From 'snapshots'
3.3 Installing live-boot and live-config
3.3.1 From the Debian repository
3.3.2 From source
3.3.3 From 'snapshots'

The basics

4. The basics

4.1 What is a live system?
4.2 Downloading prebuilt images
4.3 Using the web live image builder
4.3.1 Web builder usage and caveats
4.4 First steps: building an ISO hybrid image
4.5 Using an ISO hybrid live image
4.5.1 Burning an ISO image to a physical medium
4.5.2 Copying an ISO hybrid image to a USB stick
4.5.3 Using the space left on a USB stick
4.5.4 Booting the live medium
4.6 Using a virtual machine for testing
4.6.1 Testing an ISO image with QEMU
4.6.2 Testing an ISO image with VirtualBox
4.7 Building and using an HDD image
4.8 Building a netboot image
4.8.1 DHCP server
4.8.2 TFTP server
4.8.3 NFS server
4.8.4 Netboot testing HowTo
4.8.5 Qemu
4.9 Webbooting
4.9.1 Getting the webboot files
4.9.2 Booting webboot images

Overview of tools

5. Overview of tools

5.1 The live-build package
5.1.1 The lb config command
5.1.2 The lb build command
5.1.3 The lb clean command
5.2 The live-boot package
5.3 The live-config package

Managing a configuration

6. Managing a configuration

6.1 Dealing with configuration changes
6.1.1 Why use auto scripts? What do they do?
6.1.2 Use example auto scripts
6.2 Clone a configuration published via Git

Customizing contents

7. Customization overview

7.1 Build time vs. boot time configuration
7.2 Stages of the build
7.3 Supplement lb config with files
7.4 Customization tasks

Customizing package installation

8. Customizing package installation

8.1 Package sources
8.1.1 Distribution, archive areas and mode
8.1.2 Distribution mirrors
8.1.3 Distribution mirrors used at build time
8.1.4 Distribution mirrors used at run time
8.1.5 Additional repositories
8.2 Choosing packages to install
8.2.1 Package lists
8.2.2 Using metapackages
8.2.3 Local package lists
8.2.4 Local binary package lists
8.2.5 Generated package lists
8.2.6 Using conditionals inside package lists
8.2.7 Removing packages at install time
8.2.8 Desktop and language tasks
8.2.9 Kernel flavour and version
8.2.10 Custom kernels
8.3 Installing modified or third-party packages
8.3.1 Using packages.chroot to install custom packages
8.3.2 Using an APT repository to install custom packages
8.3.3 Custom packages and APT
8.4 Configuring APT at build time
8.4.1 Choosing apt or aptitude
8.4.2 Using a proxy with APT
8.4.3 Tweaking APT to save space
8.4.4 Passing options to apt or aptitude
8.4.5 APT pinning

Customizing contents

9. Customizing contents

9.1 Includes
9.1.1 Live/chroot local includes
9.1.2 Binary local includes
9.2 Hooks
9.2.1 Live/chroot local hooks
9.2.2 Boot-time hooks
9.2.3 Binary local hooks
9.3 Preseeding Debconf questions

Customizing run time behaviours

10. Customizing run time behaviours

10.1 Customizing the live user
10.2 Customizing locale and language
10.3 Persistence
10.3.1 The persistence.conf file
10.3.2 Using more than one persistence store
10.4 Using persistence with encryption

Customizing the binary image

11. Customizing the binary image

11.1 Bootloaders
11.2 ISO metadata

Customizing Debian Installer

12. Customizing Debian Installer

12.1 Types of Debian Installer
12.2 Customizing Debian Installer by preseeding
12.3 Customizing Debian Installer content

Projekt

Contributing to the project

13. Contributing to the project

13.1 Making changes

Reporting bugs

14. Reporting bugs

14.1 Known issues
14.2 Rebuild from scratch
14.3 Use up-to-date packages
14.4 Collect information
14.5 Isolate the failing case if possible
14.6 Use the correct package to report the bug against
14.6.1 At build time while bootstrapping
14.6.2 At build time while installing packages
14.6.3 At boot time
14.6.4 At run time
14.7 Do the research
14.8 Where to report bugs

Coding Style

15. Coding Style

15.1 Compatibility
15.2 Indenting
15.3 Wrapping
15.4 Variables
15.5 Miscellaneous

Projektabläufe

16. Procedures

16.1 Major Releases
16.2 Point Releases
16.2.1 Last Point Release of a Debian Release
16.2.2 Point release announcement template

Git repositories

17. Git repositories

17.1 Handling multiple repositories

Beispiele

Beispiele

18. Examples

18.1 Using the examples
18.2 Tutorial 1: A default image
18.3 Tutorial 2: A web browser utility
18.4 Tutorial 3: A personalized image
18.4.1 First revision
18.4.2 Second revision
18.5 A VNC Kiosk Client
18.6 A base image for a 128MB USB key
18.7 A localized GNOME desktop and installer

Anhang

Style guide

19. Style guide

19.1 Guidelines for authors
19.1.1 Linguistic features
19.1.2 Procedures
19.2 Guidelines for translators
19.2.1 Translation hints

Metadata

Live Systems Handbuch

Über dieses Handbuch

1. Über dieses Handbuch

Dieses Handbuch dient als zentraler Einstiegspunkt für die gesamte Dokumentation des Live Systems Project, insbesondere zur Software die für Debian 8.0 "jessie" erstellt wurde. Eine aktualisierte Version dieses Handbuches befindet sich auf ‹http://live-systems.org/›.

Obwohl live-manual primär das Ziel hat beim Bau eines Live Systems zu helfen und nicht Anwenderfragen zu beantworten, können Benutzer einige nützliche Informationen in den folgenden Abschnitten finden: Die Grundlagen deckt das Herunterladen und Vorbereiten von vorgefertigten Images ab, um diese von Medien oder über das Netzwerk zu starten, sowohl durch Benutzung des Web Builders als auch von live-build direkt. Die Anpassung des Laufzeitverhalten beschreibt einige Optionen welche als Startparameter benutzt werden können, z.B. die Auswahl des Tastaturlayouts und der Systemsprache oder Persistenz.

Einige der erwähnten Befehle im Text müssen als Superuser ausgeführt werden. Dies kann entweder dadurch erreicht werden, indem zuerst auf den root Benutzer gewechselt wird mittels su oder durch die Benutzung von sudo. Um die Befehle welche als unprivilegierter Benutzer ausgeführt werden können und diesen welche Superuser Rechte benötigen, sind den Befehlen $ respektive # vorangestellt. Dieses Symbol ist nicht Teil des Befehls.

1.1 Für die Ungeduldigen

Obowhl wir denken dass alles in diesem Handbuch mehr oder weniger für die einen oder anderen Benutzer wichtig ist, sind wir uns bewusst, dass es sich um viel Material handelt. Für ein schnelles Erfolgserlebnis in der Anwendung dieser Software schlagen wir die folgende Reihenfolge vor, bevor sie sich mit den Details befassen:

First, read this chapter, About this manual, from the beginning and ending with the Terms section. Next, skip to the three tutorials at the front of the Examples section designed to teach you image building and customization basics. Read Using the examples first, followed by Tutorial 1: A default image, Tutorial 2: A web browser utility and finally Tutorial 3: A personalized image. By the end of these tutorials, you will have a taste of what can be done with live systems.

We encourage you to return to more in-depth study of the manual, perhaps next reading The basics, skimming or skipping Building a netboot image, and finishing by reading the Customization overview and the chapters that follow it. By this point, we hope you are thoroughly excited by what can be done with live systems and motivated to read the rest of the manual, cover-to-cover.

1.2 Begriffe

1.3 Autoren

Liste der Autoren (in alphabetischer Reihenfolge):

1.4 Contributing to this document

This manual is intended as a community project and all proposals for improvements and contributions are extremely welcome. Please see the section Contributing to the project for detailed information on how to fetch the commit key and make good commits.

1.4.1 Applying changes

In order to make changes to the English manual you have to edit the right files in manual/en/ but prior to the submission of your contribution, please preview your work. To preview the live-manual, ensure the packages needed for building it are installed by executing:

# apt-get install make po4a ruby ruby-nokogiri sisu-complete

You may build the live-manual from the top level directory of your Git checkout by executing:

$ make build

Since it takes a while to build the manual in all supported languages, authors may find it convenient to use one of the fast proofing shortcuts when reviewing the new documentation they have added to the English manual. Using PROOF=1 builds live-manual in html format, but without the segmented html files, and using PROOF=2 builds live-manual in pdf format, but only the A4 and letter portraits. That is why using either of the PROOF= possibilities can save up a considerable amount of time, e.g:

$ make build PROOF=1

When proofing one of the translations it is possible to build only one language by executing, e.g:

$ make build LANGUAGES=de

It is also possible to build by document type, e.g:

$ make build FORMATS=pdf

Or combine both, e.g:

$ make build LANGUAGES=de FORMATS=html

After revising your work and making sure that everything is fine, do not use make commit unless you are updating translations in the commit, and in that case, do not mix changes to the English manual and translations in the same commit, but use separate commits for each. See the Translation section for more details.

1.4.2 Translation

In order to translate live-manual, follow these steps depending on whether you are starting a translation from scratch or continue working on an already existing one:

After running make commit you will see some text scroll by. These are basically informative messages about the processing status and also some hints about what can be done in order to improve live-manual. Unless you see a fatal error, you usually can proceed and submit your contribution.

live-manual comes with two utilities that can greatly help translators to find untranslated and changed strings. The first one is "make translate". It launches an script that tells you in detail how many untranslated strings there are in each .po file. The second one, the "make fixfuzzy" target, only acts upon changed strings but it helps you to find and fix them one by one.

Keep in mind that even though these utilities might be really helpful to do translation work on the command line, the use of an specialized tool like poedit is the recommended way to do the task. It is also a good idea to read the Debian localization (l10n) documentation and, specifically to live-manual, the Guidelines for translators.

Note: You can use make clean to clean your git tree before pushing. This step is not compulsory thanks to the .gitignore file but it is a good practice to avoid committing files involuntarily.